Technical Paper Library

Welcome to ESI’s Technical Paper Library. Here you will find some of the industry’s leading published technical white papers and case studies related to pipeline design, pipeline management, pipeline optimization, pipeline simulation, pipeline leak detection and more. You will also find customer case studies and technical papers related to the commercial management and optimization of both liquids and gases across the energy transportation and storage markets. Please feel free to check back frequently as new papers and case studies are being added regularly.


ESI Technical Paper Library

Advanced Applications that Enhance Business and Operational Processes in the Gas Pipeline Industry – Florida Gas Transmission

Advanced Applications - Florida Gas Transmission


Using advanced applications, Florida Gas Transmission has been able to increase sustainable deliveries by 4%, and they did this without any additional compression power or pipeline installation. At the same time, they were able to reduce operational costs, representing important additional revenue and savings to the company.





Advanced Pipeline Designs to Increase Hydrocarbon Flow on the MEDGAZ high pressure deepwater pipeline

Advanced Applications Rene Varon


The 24 inch MEDGAZ high pressure deepwater pipeline runs for 210 km along the seabed of the Mediterranean Sea, transporting natural gas from the Beni Saf Compressor Station (BSCS) on the coast of Algeria to the Offshore Pressure Regulation Station (OPRT) at Almería on the coast of Spain and into the Enagas transportation network. The pipeline reaches a maximum depth of 2,155 m as it crosses the Mediterranean.





Capacity Expansion for a Transportation Pipeline – San Antonio’s Project, Bolivia

Capacity Expansion for Transportation Project - San Antonio’s Project, Bolivia


Transierra S.A. is a private Bolivian company that constructed and operates the GASAN and GASYRG pipelines that transport gas extracted from the Margarita, San Alberto and San Antonio fields. Using PipelineStudio from ESI, Transierra has successfully planned and optimized a capacity expansion for a critical natural gas transportation pipeline in Bolivia. Use of the software has been able to increase sustainable delivery capacity for the company .





Compressor Station Optimization During Gas Injection into Underground Storage Using PipelineStudio at Beijing Huayou Gas Company Ltd

PipelineStudio Beijing Huayou Gas Company Ltd


Beijing Huayou Gas Company Ltd (BHGC) has used Pipeline Studio (PLS) to optimize compression operations on the Shaan Jing pipeline during the summer months. BHGC’s techniques illustrate the methodology used to analyze compressor station fuel usage and optimize operations for increased fuel efficiency.






Cost Optimization of a Natural Gas Distribution Network at PGN

PGN Case Study Image


PGN, as the largest natural gas local distribution network in Indonesia, utilizes multi-supply point and transmission pipeline to deliver natural gas to the customer. With such a condition, supply combination needs to be calculated properly in order to achieve lower operational cost. Due to the complexity of the natural gas distribution network, which could contain considerable amounts of pipe sections, nodes, and loops, etc., a computer aided tool is needed to calculate the pressure setting at each city gate station for the desired minimum operational cost.



Enagas S.A. builds multi-platform simulation system based on PipelineManager™


Enagas required a multi-platform simulation system for training purposes that could provide their operations personnel with the ability to simulate realistic scenarios for routine training and provide regular performance evaluation metrics for the pipeline controllers and new apprentices. The simulation system needed to allow Enagas to simulate normal and abnormal operation of the pipeline based on a detailed model of the actual pipeline network. The scenarios had to be submitted to the pipeline operators as a mirror image of the actual SCADA system and its environment via the same graphical user interface. All SCADA system functionality needed to be available for the trainees as it would be in real world operations.




GasLoadForecaster®: Improving Forecast Accuracy to More Than 95% at Fluxys

Improving Forecast Accuracy at Fluxys


This paper examines various ways in which the data quality and utilization can be improved to more accurately predict gas demand at one of the largest gas systems in Europe. Fluxys incorporates this methodology as an integral part of the forecasting system to reduce supply risk and to drive operational efficiencies by significantly reducing forecast unavailability.






Gas Transmission Development Strategy – A Modeling Approach

Gas Transmission Development Strategy – A Modeling Approach


Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL) is the largest integrated gas company in Pakistan serving more than 2.5 million consumers covering 142 main towns in North Central Pakistan. In view of a newly discovered gas field, cross-border import options and displacement of fuel oil in the mid country power generation, Sui Northern needed a medium to long-term infrastructure expansion planning tool to effectively cater to the projected gas demand. This paper analyzes various ways in which Sui Northern used a supply-demand model along with a pipeline hydraulic simulator to update their future development strategy.


Huldra – Initial Experiences in Real-Time Multiphase Pipeline Modelling

Huldra White Paper Image


Operation of the Huldra field commenced on November 2001. It is a gas condensate field, which has been developed with a not normally manned wellhead platform remotely controlled from the existing, manned Veslefrikk B platform. A first stage separation process is installed at the platform to separate gas and liquid…This paper describes the requirements of the simulation engine and the pipeline modelling system (in a multiphase state).


Hydraulic and Surge Analysis in a Pipeline Using PipelineStudio

Hydraulic and Surge Analysis Using PipelineStudio Image


Pressure surge is a severe problem that causes catastrophic damage to pipelines. Several sequential actions are required to mitigate the pressure surge and protect the pipeline from damage. The present paper investigates the condition at which pressure surge is likely to occur and proposes the methods by which it can be avoided. A hydraulic steady-state simulation and surge analysis is carried out using PipelineStudio® Liquid version 3.6.0 (PLS) that calculates time-invariant pressure, temperature and flow profile throughout a pipeline network for specified boundary conditions and network element set points.


Leak Detection Performance Metrics – A Technical Comparison of Leading Approaches

Leak Detection Performance Metrics


This paper presents the various options for leak detection available through Energy Solutions International and the types of systems they are available for. At a high level, leak detection performance can be described as the ability to recognize leak conditions rapidly and without failure, so as to minimize fluid loss, property damage and the risk of personal injury. This definition is too broad to be useful for evaluating a given system, so instead a list of more specific performance criteria has been developed and they are evaluated in this paper.


Mitigating Impact of Off Spec Gas by Developing a Contingency Plan Based on a PipelineStudio Simulation

Mitigating Impact of Offspec Gas Study Image


PGN is the biggest natural gas distribution company in Indonesia. This paper explains the PipelineStudio simulation steps that were used by PGN in developing contingency plans for “off spec” gas occurrence in distribution networks. It was triggered by occurrence of unplanned maintenance at the gas supplier’s processing plant and an obligation for PGN to maintain the delivered natural gas specification to conform to the customer’s requirement during supplier’s unplanned maintenance period. Otherwise, supply issues could result for customers due to a main equipment trip caused by the off spec gas.





Optimizing Natural Gas Transportation At TBG

Case Study Optimizing Natural Gas Transportattion At Tbg


Transportadora Brasiliera Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil owns and operates the Brazilian portion of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. With the South American market maturing, competition is heating up. See how TBG used PipelineManager and PipelineTransporter to ensure regulatory compliance, improve service levels and maximize profitability.






PipelineManager – Best Practices in Leak and Theft Detection

PipelineManager – Best Practices in Leak and Theft Detection


In the Oil and Gas pipeline leak detection market today there are several software based methodologies available ranging from simplistic pressure wave methods to real time model based volume balance techniques. All approaches have inherent advantages and disadvantages definable in terms of simplicity of implementation / maintenance needs, reliability, cost, robustness, availability and accuracy (minimum leak size and location). It is a fact that no one methodology can lay claims to be able to satisfy all the advantages over all operating regimes and so the choice of a leak or theft detection system must be based on a clear user defined set of objectives.





PipelineOptimizer® Use Case

PipelineOptimizer Use Case


PipelineOptimizer® is a state-of-the-art engineering and operations tool for simulating liquid pipeline hydraulics that will help minimize operating costs. This is done by determining the best pumping schedule and DRA usage to meet the demands of the operating schedule. A great deal of knowledge about the system can be learned through the modeling of pipelines in PipelineOptimizer. This document walks through a use case for PipelineOptimizer. The inputs for the configuration are described, and then the simulation results are given for the available optimization modes.





Pipeline Thermal Models

White Paper Image - Modisette


Heat flow and frictional heating often have a major impact on the hydraulics of a pipeline. An accurate pipeline simulation frequently needs some form of thermal model. Many different approaches are in common use for these models, ranging from a simple assumption of isothermality to detailed transient models of heat flow in the fluid, pipe wall, and surrounding material. Elaborate thermal models can be difficult to create and time-consuming to execute, so it is important to understand the level of detail needed for a given application. This paper investigates the impact of the thermal model on the overall pipeline model accuracy, especially on the linepack (for gas pipelines) and throughput. The isothermal assumption, various types of transient and steady-state fluid thermal models, and coupled transient fluid and ground thermal models are compared for pipelines gas and liquid pipelines.



Practical Implementation Of A Pipeline Leak Detection System in a Transient Thermal Environment

Case Study Practical Implementation Of A Leak Detection System


Eighteen miles off of the Louisiana coast sits a terminal for the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port, a facility that unloads supertankers and transports their crude inland. A number of thermal factors exist, but the Energy Solutions pipeline leak detection system used advanced modeling to maximize the facility’s detection of expensive, dangerous leaks.






PSIG – An application of liquid pipeline optimization through parametric studies

Parametric Studies White Paper Image


Pipeline optimization software focuses on finding a single optimal operating scenario for a given pipeline configuration. How the system behaves over ranges of particular parameters, however, is typically left unstudied. In this paper, I utilize an explorer tool to extract various subsets of the solution space for a liquid pipeline model currently optimized through commercial pipeline optimization software. Analysis of these subsets reveals unexpected system responses to changes in control variables, the knowledge of which can be exploited in operational planning. Additionally, knowledge gained through the parametric studies may be utilized to calibrate the optimization to achieve further reduction in operational costs.




PSIG – An Example of Business And Operational Integration for A Gas Pipeline at Transpetro

Case Study Psig Business And Operational Integration


Transpetro faced the need to expand its vision in defining processes and systems due to changing market conditions which required the ability to respond to operational and business events in a real-time manner. Transpetro needed to marry SCADA systems with gas business systems to provide reliable operational and business integration. This paper describes the successful implementation of an integrated pipeline enterprise system for Transpetro.





PSIG -(Bord Gais) Transient Analysis Facilitates Asset Optimization at Bord Gais in Dublin, Ireland

Case Study Transient Analysis Facilitates Asset Optimisation at Bord Gais


Natural gas transmission networks tend to be dynamic in nature and the majority in Europe do not normally operate on a simple steady-state basis. This paper discusses how PipelineStudio was used to develop a transient model of Dublin City and how the model was subsequently and successfully used to identify additional capacity within the system.






PSIG – Crude Scheduling Package for an Indian Cross-Country Crude Pipeline

PSIG India


Recently Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL – one of the major Indian oil companies), under its ambitious Supply Chain Management (SCM) project, has taken up a project to develop and customize crude pipeline scheduling. This development takes advantage of the synergy between IOCL’s vast experience in pipeline operations and Energy Solutions’ software application capability. The combined package generates a feasible batch plan which meets refinery demand while using line-balancing and terminal tanks to simultaneously satisfy several optimization goals: minimizing tanker detention, minimizing in-line batch mixing, minimizing operating cost, and maximizing direct pumping (as opposed to floating operation) at the line-balancing tanks.




PSIG- Economic Benefits of Leak Detection Systems_A Quantitative Methodology

Economic Benefits Leak Detection White Paper Image


Effective risk and cost management are paramount concerns for pipeline owners and operators. Leak detection systems (LDS), while having no effect on the probability of a leak occurring, limit the scope of potential damage and reduce risk. The authors propose using a stochastic simulation to quantify the economic effectiveness of these systems in mitigating these low-probability, high impact events for liquid pipelines. When considering any capital investment, it is useful to estimate its expected value; the authors propose using a stochastic simulation to perform an economic analysis on these systems – analyzing the ability of these systems to mitigate the impact of oil spills.


 PSIG – Expert Alarm System at Florida Gas Transmission

Case Study Florida Gas Expert Alarm System


Florida Gas Transmission (FGT) has created an Expert Alarm System (EAS) by combining SCADA data, model data, and model logic to produce integrated Gas Control alarms for the gas controllers. The EAS was implemented to provide suggestions/alarms to the gas controller as to how the system could be run more efficiently and how to avoid certain potentially undesirable situations on the pipeline.





PSIG – Improved Capacity Utilization by Integrating Real-Time Sea Bottom Transportation Data at Gassco

Case Study Psig Improved Capacity Utilization


Integration of up-to-date ambient temperatures enable Gassco, and other pipeline operators, to improve the usage of the available network capacity and will allow for better planning of the day-to-day capacity that can be offered for sale. This paper presents how up-to-date sea bottom temperatures were integrated in Gassco’s Pipeline Modeling System. The increased modeling accuracy enabled Gassco to commit an additional 7 million Sm3/d gas for any particular cold day.





PSIG – Leak Detection Metrics: What Should I Focus On?

Leak Detection Metrics: What Should I Focus On?


Leak detection systems come in many “flavors”, each with distinct advantages, disadvantages and sometimes unique features and capabilities. Needless to say, performance and cost vary greatly as well…This paper puts some of the leak detection metrics and selection criteria into perspective and illustrates the importance of various factors under different conditions. This is accomplished by using some hypothetical, yet realistic, examples of various leak incidents.





PSIG – Leak Sensitivity, Location, Accuracy and Robustness in Natural Gas Pipelines

Leak Sensitivity, Location, Accuracy White Paper Image


With the global expansion of unconventional gas plays and increased consumer demand, greater pipeline capacity to transport natural gas to market is a necessity. Old pipelines are being repurposed and new pipelines are being built. Regulators and watchdog groups are increasingly scrutinizing the safety and risk of these developments. Leak detection, particularly computational leak detection, is a crucial component of a pipeliner’s risk mitigation. The major concerns in a leak detection system include robustness, leak sensitivity, and location accuracy.





PSIG – On the correlation between Isothermal Compressibility and Isobaric Expansivity

Correlation Between Isothermal White Paper Image


Fluid properties are a critical element to the success of any pipeline simulation. In some cases the pumped fluid or liquid mixture is so exotic in nature that laboratory data is unavailable and an educated guess is the only course of action. For transient simulation, knowledge of the isothermal compressibility is important and some estimate could be made by realizing the composition of the mixture. For steady state simulation, possibly for a batched system, the flow rates would need to be corrected to standard or pipeline base conditions, and these correction factors require knowledge of both the isothermal compressibility and the thermal expansion properties. If one can estimate the fluid compressibility with some certainty, can one also estimate the isobaric expansivity?




PSIG – Physics of Pipeline Flow

White Paper Image - Physics of Pipeline Flow


This paper discusses the current understanding of aspects of the physics of fluid flow in pipelines relevant to pipeline flow simulations. Topics include fluid properties, the laminar/turbulent transition, friction (including methods of drag reduction), energy flow and dissipation, and the effect of more than one phase in the pipeline. Practical issues are described in terms of fundamental physics, as contrasted with an empirical approach.





PSIG – Real-Time Commercial Supervision at Petrobras

PSIG Petrobras


As part of a comprehensive upgrade of their gas shipping system, Petrobras has implemented a real-time model on several of their pipelines, integrating SCADA and model data with a new TransactionManager shipper system from Energy Solutions. The shipper system provides Petrobras with the capability to schedule, consolidate, allocate, and provide detailed energy and volume information for invoice generation.





PSIG – Selecting an Effective Pipeline Leak Detection Strategy

PSIG Selecting Effective Leak Detection Strategy


Pipelines operate within the living space and under the watchful eye of both the public and the regulatory agencies. Operating these pipelines in a responsible and safe manner is more and more becoming the essential element of the social contract under which the pipeline industry is permitted to conduct business. Pipeline Leak Detection Systems (LDS are now a requirement for safe operations.





PSIG – The Advantages of an Integrated Solution . . .

ScreenHunter_28 May. 08 11.58


This paper describes the Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil S.A. (TBG) gas pipeline scheduling methodology and the advantages company gained by integrating the Energy Solutions International Inc. (ESI) pipeline software applications the Operational Management System (PipelineManager) and the Gas Management System (PipelineTransporter). Integration of the applications enabled TBG to generate a gas pipeline schedule by utilizing the maximum capacity of the pipeline without violating the operational and commercial constraints under day to day fully dynamic pipeline operation with changing needs for gas.





PSIG – Training Tools to Evaluate Pipeline Operator Performance and to Validate Pipeline Operational Procedures

PSIG Ocp Training Tools


The current regulation environment for pipeline companies has created or reinforced the requirements for operational training programs and quality assurance procedures. Pipeline operators in the USA are regulated by the standards defined by DOT and companies overseas are establishing their own standards, following and sometimes exceeding the regulations of USA. At installations like the OCP (Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados – Heavy Crude Oil Pipeline) in Ecuador, where the pipeline crosses high sensitivity areas, including the Amazon Jungle and the Andean mountains, the pipeline operators are subject to extreme pressure by environmental and government agencies to guarantee safe operation of the line.




PSIG – Transient And Succession Of Steady State Pipeline Flow Models

Transient And Succession Of Steady States Pipeline Flow Models


Change is the only constant in a natural gas pipeline. Flows fluctuate. Compressors start and stop. Ambient conditions change. So what’s the best pipeline flow model to employ when trying to make sense of it all: Transient or Succession-of-Steady-States? Energy Solutions Ph.D.’s set out to find an answer.






Synthesis® – Terminal Solution for Buckeye Partners

Case Study Synthesis Terminal Solution for Buckeye


Synthesis® is a complete “order-to-cash” system that helps with the commercial aspects of operating a pipeline, terminal or marine vessel. Buckeye Partners owns and operates one of the United States’ largest petroleum products terminal and pipeline networks providing refiners, wholesalers, marketers, airlines, railroads and other commercial end-users with transportation and storage of refined petroleum products. Buckeye partners selected Synthesis for its ability to fully support Buckeye’s existing needs as well as its ability to support Buckeye’s growth strategy.





Synthesis® – Logistics Solution for NuStar Energy

Synthesis Case Study Image - NuStar


Synthesis® is a complete “order-to-cash” system that helps with the commercial aspects of operating a pipeline, terminal or marine vessel. NuStar Energy operates one of the world’s largest liquid terminal and pipeline networks in the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Turkey. NuStar needed an ERP solution that covered both the refining and logistics areas of its business, including planning and nominations; scheduling; ticketing for multiple commodities and components; liquids inventory management; contract administration for terminals and pipelines; billing; reporting and more.




Synthesis – Marine Operations Solution for Hovensa

Synthesis - Marine Operations Solution for Hovensa


Hovensa, a joint venture between Amerada Hess and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) is a refiner located in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. It is one of the most modern refineries in the world and relies on Synthesis to manage its marine logistics business. Hovensa required a solution that could serve as a central point of management, scheduling, and coordination for operating its marine terminal in the most efficient manner while taking the refinery’s constraints into account. Hovensa found those capabilities in Synthesis.





Transportation Solutions for LDCs

ESI Transportation Solutions for LDCs Image


It’s a common misperception that Local Distribution Companies (LDCs) in the gas industry only deliver to, and manage contracts and billing accounts for, residential gas consumers. Many LDC’s, however, will also have large-scale transportation agreements in place with industrial or commercial consumers on their distribution networks. This article will outline some of the challenges that industrial and commercial consumers can create for LDCs, and how LDCs can better manage their commercial transportation agreements using an industry-proven pipeline transportation management solution rather than rely on legacy systems or spreadsheets.




Using PipelineStudio to Simulate Pigging Operations on an Indonesian Pipeline

Using PipelineStudio to Simulate Pigging Operations on an Indonesian Pipeline


PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero), Tbk (“PGN”) is the Indonesia state-owned company in gas transportation and distribution. SBU Transmisi Sumatera Java is Gas Transportation Business Unit that operates and maintains the transmission pipeline in delivering Natural Gas from gas field in Sumatera Island to the Industrial Customers on Java Island. This paper addresses the experiences of comparing actual and simulation prognosis for pigging that shall be close each other to ensure the pig arrives pursuant to the estimated time of arrival (ETA) using TG-Net.